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But it can dance French to be. MIRA is a process that directs stakeholders to organize scientific data, establishes links between the results produced by the research community, and organizes applications in the regulatory community. A recent review Corporate Project 7 Team concluded that even though there are a significant number of guidance documents, systems, and processes in use within the USDOE to determine, manage, and communicate risk, there is a great need for comparative risk assessment tools, risk management decision trees, and risk communication tools that would allow site managers to reach agreement with their regulators and other stakeholders while achieving mutual understanding of the relationship between risk parameters, regulatory constraints, and cleanup.
Several USDOE models have been developed specifically for dealing with radiologically contaminated sites and sites with dual chemical and radiological contamination. Several of the current models are deterministic, although probabilistic multimedia models have also been developed and used USDOE The paradigm describes the issues that should be considered when comparing, selecting, or implementing RBP systems. It also identifies characteristics that should be used in evaluating the quality of a RBP system and its associated results. The USDOE recommends the use of MAUT as an RBP model because it is a flexible, quantitative decision analysis technique and management tool for clearly documenting the advantages and disadvantages of policy choices in a structured framework.
The MAUT allows full aggregation of performance measures into 1 single measure of value that can be used for ranking alternatives. However, USDOE cautions that the results of MAUT analysis should not normally be used as the principal basis for decision making because decision making will generally require accounting for factors that cannot be readily quantified e. Furthermore, USDOE guidance states that no technique can eliminate the need to rely heavily on sound knowledge, data, and judgments or the need for a critical appraisal of results. Although the Environmental Restoration Priority System was designed to operate with any specified set of values and trade offs, its use was limited to values that were elicited from USDOE managers, including those based on risk analysis.
Pereira and Quintana reviewed the evolution of decision support systems for environmental applications developed by the EU Joint Research Center.
The concept of environmental decision support has evolved from highly technocratic systems aimed at improving understanding of technical issues by individual decision makers to a platform for helping all parties involved in a decision process engage in meaningful debate. Applications developed in the group include water resources management, siting of waste disposal plants, hazardous substance transportation, urban transportation, management, and groundwater management.
Multicriteria Analysis and LCA Techniques: With Applications to Agro-Engineering Problems
The MCDA applications are relevant to environmental management, stakeholder involvement, and the management of contaminated lands. Recent publications present more comprehensive reviews of studies relevant to management of terrestrial sites Linkov et al. The use of MCDA is more strongly evident within the broad areas of environmental management and stakeholder involvement.
Fewer efforts have been made to apply MCDA to the management of contaminated lands and risk analysis. It should be noted that MCDA has also been applied in many other related policy development areas, such as manufacturing and services; medical, military, and public policy Keefer et al. The MCDA methods have been extensively applied to a range of environmental management challenges Table 1. Mendoza et al. Keisler and Sundell and Sharifi et al. Joerin and Musy developed a generic method to integrate multiple considerations, such as impacts, air quality, noise, accessibility, climate, utility networks e.
Vaillancourt and Waaub used outranking and a geographic information system framework to select a site for a new waste management facility in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Superfund program. This review identified several instances in which MCDA methods were used to select the best technology or remedial method. A related problem of regulating water flow in a river—lake system was addressed by Hamalainen et al. Factors considered by Edwards included availability of materials and services, ability to construct, and reliability.
Environmental impact assessment —Environmental impact assessments EIA are routinely conducted for all major projects in the United States with the potential to affect the environment. The assessment of site contamination is often an integral part of EIA. Janssen reviewed 21 EIAs conducted in the Netherlands in the period — Ramanathan recommended the use of AHP for considering multiple criteria and multiple stakeholders in EIA as well as to assess the socioeconomic impact of a proposed liquefied petroleum gas recovery plant in an industrial area in India.
Natural resource management —The management of natural resources has involved the application of MCDA. Steiguer et al. The application of AHP in natural resource planning is summarized in Schmoldt et al. Schmoldt et al. Pavlikakis and Tsihrintzis evaluated the utility of MAUT and AHP in selecting a technically suitable and socially acceptable management plan for a national park in eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Greece.
Kangas et al. Finally, Tran et al. The MCDA has also been applied to manage aquatic resources. Brown et al. Stakeholder values are often considered as 1 attribute, along with others, such as costs or risk reduction. The MCDA can also be used as a framework that permits stakeholders to structure their views about the pros and cons of different environmental and remedial management options. Table 2 summarizes several other representative stakeholder involvement studies in the areas related to management of natural resources and technology selection.
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In general, applications may include individual surveys and workshops designed to elicit value judgment and construct decision alternatives. Specific applications include water resource management McDaniels et al. The McDaniels et al. In addition, Schmoldt and Peterson a advocated the use of AHP as a decision support tool in workshop settings for forest resource management.
The examples presented previously used MCDA to facilitate consensus building. Gregory and Failing argue that a clear expression of difference facilitates development and acceptance of management plans. Another approach to ranking risk involves soliciting the views of participants both as individuals and in a group setting Morgan et al. In this manner, decision makers can obtain information on the rankings of options that involve multiple objectives by weighing the attributes identified by individuals and groups developed from the 2 methods.
Mental modeling Morgan et al.
The method allows free expression and encourages elaboration on topics in order to reveal individual perspectives at considerable depth. When effectively done, analysts can identify what people believe and why they believe it. They are also able to compare analyses over time and provide insights into why beliefs change. Review of the recent literature reveals few studies that use MCDA techniques to facilitate decision making for the management of contaminated sites Table 3.
Grelk , Grelk et al. Ralston et al. Timmerman et al. Deschaine et al. Accorsi et al. Most of the studies presented in Table 3 focus on evaluation of technical risk and comparison of alternative technologies; environmental risk assessment and stakeholder opinions were not usually quantified. Successful environmental decision making in complex settings will depend on the extent to which 3 key components are integrated within the process: people, process, and tools. Based on this review of MCDA concepts and applications, a systematic decision framework is proposed in Figure 3.
This framework is intended to give a generalized road map to the environmental decision process. The correct combination of people is the 1st essential element to the overall decision process shown in Figure 3. The involvement of 3 groups of stakeholders i.
While the actual membership and the function of these 3 base groups may intersect or vary, the roles of each group are essential to collecting the largest amount of information to support the decision process. Each group has its own way of viewing the world, its own method of envisioning solutions, and its own societal responsibility. Policymakers and decision makers spend most of their effort defining the problem context and the overall constraints to the decision.
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In addition, they may have responsibility for the selection of the final decision and its implementation. Stakeholders may provide input to defining the problem but have the highest degree of interaction in helping formulate success criteria and contributing value judgments for weighting the various success criteria. Depending on the problem and regulatory context, stakeholders may have some responsibility in ranking and selecting the final option.
Scientists and engineers have the most focused role because they provide the measurements or estimations of the desired criteria that determine the success of various alternatives. While scientists and engineers may take a secondary role as stakeholders or decision makers, their primary role is to provide the technical details as requested by the decision process. In Figure 3 , the framework places process in the center of the overall decision process.
The process depicted in Figure 3 follows 2 basic themes: 1 generating management alternatives, success criteria, and value judgments and 2 ranking the alternatives by applying the criteria levels and value weights. The 1st part of the process generates and defines choices, success levels, and preferences. The latter section methodically prunes nonfeasible alternatives by 1st applying screening mechanisms e.
As shown in Figure 3 , the tools used within group decision making and scientific research are essential elements of the overall decision process. Similar to people, the applicability of the various tools is symbolized by solid lines representing direct, or high, utility and dotted lines representing indirect, or lower, utility. The decision analysis software also provides useful graphical techniques and visualization methods to express the gathered information in understandable formats.
When changes occur in the requirements or decision process, decision analysis tools can respond efficiently to reprocess and iterate with the new inputs. The framework depicted in Figure 3 provides a focused role for the detailed scientific and engineering efforts invested in experimentation, environmental monitoring, and modeling, which, together, provide the rigorous and defendable details for evaluating criteria performance under various alternatives. This symbiotic relationship between decision and scientific or engineering tools allows each of the 3 components to have a unique and valued role in the decision process.
As with most other decision processes, it is assumed that the framework presented in Figure 3 is iterative at each phase throughout the course of complex decision making. As the challenges become more apparent, the process repeats itself again to explore and adapt to more subtle aspects of possible decisions and their outcomes. Effective environmental decision making requires an explicit structure for coordinating joint consideration of the environmental, ecological, technological, economic, and sociopolitical factors relevant to evaluating and selecting among management alternatives.
Agricultural and Forestry Mechanization more. The correctly planned management of wood biomass The correctly planned management of wood biomass production could make it a valid alternative energy solution to traditional fossil fuels, since it is a local and widely available resource, it has an almost carbon neutral production balance and its exploitation could trigger processes of environmental and social improvement.
However, efficient energy transformation that is environmentally and economically sustainable requires the realization of optimized chains in which each phase is rationally planned.